sympathetic to communism, was arrested by the Soviet nkvd secret police and exiled to Kazakhstan. 25665 Stoliński, Krzysztof (2004 Supply of money to the Secret Army (AK) and the Civil Authorities in occupied Poland (19391945). At the same time, church property was confiscated, prohibitions were placed on using the Polish language in religious services, organizations affiliated with the Catholic Church were abolished, and it was forbidden to perform certain religious songsor to read passages of the Bible in public. 112 Polish music, including orchestras, also went underground.

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23 Some art was shipped to German museums, such as the planned Führermuseum in Linz, while other art became the private property of Nazi officials. Old textbooks were confiscated and school libraries were closed. Nevertheless, underground organizations and individuals in particular the. On 8 October, Nazi Germany annexed the western areas of pre-war Poland and, in the remainder of the occupied area, established the General Government. Druga wojna światowa Archived at the Wayback Machine, Encyklopedia PWN, Retrieved on (in Polish) Mirosław Adam Supruniuk, Malarstwo polskie w Wielkiej Brytanii - prace i dokumenty Archived at the Wayback Machine, Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika, Retrieved on vies 2005,. . 20 As the high-ranking Nazi official Erich Koch explained, "We must do everything possible so that when a Pole meets a Ukrainian, he will be willing to kill the Ukrainian and conversely, the Ukrainian will be willing to kill the. 108 Underground postage stamps were designed and issued. 89125 Piotrowski 1997,. . 133134 a b c d e f g Madajczyk 1970,. .


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101 Tajne Wojskowe Zakłady Wydawnicze (Secret Military Publishing House) of Jerzy Rutkowski (subordinated to the Armia Krajowa) was probably the largest underground publisher in the world. 228 Piotrowski 1997,. . These works were reprinted on underground presses, and those intended for public display were plastered to walls or painted on them as graffiti. (2003 History of Education Reform in Post-Communism Poland, 19891999: Historical and Contemporary Effects on Educational Transition Archived at the Wayback Machine, dissertation at the Ohio State University, Retrieved on Madajczyk 1970,. . According to some statistics, these couriers were among the underground members most frequently arrested by the Germans. 38 In the Bezirk Bialystok region, for example, 86 of the schools that had existed before the war were closed down during the first two years of German occupation, and by the end of the following year that figure had increased. (1999 "Germans and Poles 18711945", Germany and Eastern Europe: Cultural Identities and Cultural Differences, Rodopi: 1534, isbn via Google Books Madajczyk 1970,. . 38 In the General Government, thai spa göteborg thai hedemora the remaining schools were subjugated to the German educational system, and the number and competence of their Polish staff was steadily scaled down. 1 2, policies aimed at cultural genocide resulted in the deaths of thousands of scholars and artists, and the theft and destruction of innumerable cultural artifacts. 54 Censorship at first targeted books that were considered to be "serious including scientific and educational texts and texts that were thought to promote Polish patriotism; only fiction that was free of anti-German overtones was permitted. Stories Behind the Photographs, In: Reportaże z Powstania Warszawskiego (Warsaw Uprising Reportages KAW, Warsaw, 1983. The Germans had almost certainly realized the full scale of the Polish underground education system by about 1943, but lacked the manpower to put an end to it, probably prioritizing resources to dealing with the armed resistance. 115 Some artists worked directly for the Underground State, forging money and documents, 116 117 and creating anti-Nazi art (satirical posters and caricatures ) or Polish patriotic symbols (for example kotwica ). 15 The Germans hoped that a more lenient cultural policy would lessen unrest and weaken the Polish Resistance. 6364 Lukowski, Zawadzki 2006,. . 113 Warsaw Uprising edit During the Warsaw Uprising (AugustOctober 1944 people in Polish-controlled territory endeavored to recreate the former day-to-day life of their free country. The index of banned authors included such Polish authors as Adam Mickiewicz, Juliusz Słowacki, Stanisław Wyspiański, Bolesław Prus, Stefan Żeromski, Józef Ignacy Kraszewski, Władysław Reymont, Stanisław Wyspiański, Julian Tuwim, Kornel Makuszyński, Leopold Staff, Eliza Orzeszkowa and Maria Konopnicka. 227 Salmonowicz 1994,. . 28 Dozens of monuments were destroyed throughout Poland. Soon afterward, the Germans set fire to a Jewish synagogue and filmed Polish bystanders, portraying them in propaganda releases as a "vengeful mob." 19 This divisive policy was reflected in the Germans' decision to destroy Polish education, while at the. 92 Even some academic research was carried out (for example, by Władysław Tatarkiewicz, a leading Polish philosopher, and Zenon Klemensiewicz, a linguist). Polish clergy and religious leaders figured prominently among portions of the intelligentsia that were targeted for extermination. 10 Further directives issued in the spring and early summer reflected policies that had been outlined by Frank and Goebbels during the previous autumn.